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"Organic Pest Control: Mustard"

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Rashell blog photos
Joined: 9/17/2007
Location: Acton, Ca
Posts: 4230
Posted: Jul/30/2008 3:52 PM PST

Some more info thought some of you might want to read.

Organic Pest Control: Mustard -- Hot Stuff For Natural Pest Control
ScienceDaily (July 29, 2008)
— Researchers, growers and Industry specialists from 22 countries will share the latest research into the use of Brassica species, such as mustard, radish, or rapeseed, to manage soil-borne pests and weeds – a technique known as biofumigation.

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“Brassica plants naturally release compounds that suppress pests and pathogens, principally isothiocyanates (ITCs), which most people would recognise as the ‘hot’ flavour in mustard or horseradish,” says CSIRO’s Dr John Kirkegaard, the conference convenor.

“When ITCs are released in soil by green-manuring, soil-borne pests and pathogens can be suppressed and the yields of solanaceous vegetables such as potatoes, tomatoes and eggplants can be increased by up to 40 per cent in some cases.

“The technique is relevant to developed countries seeking alternatives to banned synthetic pesticides such as methyl-bromide, as well as poor farmers in developing countries who often have few alternatives for controlling serious diseases in their crops,” Dr Kirkegaard says.

“It can provide economic and social benefits, as improved crop yields lead to increased incomes, as well as a range of environmental and health benefits from a reduced reliance on fumigants and pesticides.”

Using brassicas to manage soil-borne pests is not new, but modern science is providing new insights and techniques to enhance the reliability of the effect as part of an integrated pest control strategy. Brassicas can also provide other benefits to the soil as green manures.

Australian scientists are at the forefront of this area of research, in projects on tropical vegetable production systems in north Queensland and the Philippines, supported by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), and on temperate southern Australian vegetable production, supported by Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL) using voluntary contributions from industry and matched funding from the Australian Government.

The Symposium will consist of three days of scientific and Industry presentations designed to stimulate discussions about the underpinning science, as well as the practical application of biofumigation technology in Australia and worldwide.

“The Symposium is an excellent opportunity to draw together the latest research on the subject from around the globe,” Dr Kirkegaard says.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/07/08072 5094043.htm
Aurora blog photos
Joined: 4/24/2008
Location: Chesapeake VA
Posts: 1954
Posted: Jul/31/2008 10:52 AM PST

Not sure I understand this-
Do you plant them as companion plants in the same beds as the tomatoes, etc? Or do you use it more like crop rotation? Plant them in a bed one year, then work them into the soil for the following year's crop?
Really neat though
Rashell blog photos
Joined: 9/17/2007
Location: Acton, Ca
Posts: 4230
Posted: Jul/31/2008 4:35 PM PST

I found the following article on Biofumigation it might help us to understand the above article better. I think we need to read up more on the subject to really get the details. Pretty neat, I agree! The more I read up on it the more it makes sense to me too.

LOL, we MIGHT need our dictionary for this.

www.arc.agric.za/uploads/images/0_Biofumigation.do c
What is it, and 'What benefit can it add to existing farming systems?
What is biofumigation? Biofumigation is an agronomic technique that makes use of some plants' defensive systems. The main plant species in which this is found are the Brassicaceae (cabbage, cauliflower, kale, mustard) Capparidaceae (cleome) and Moringaceae (horse-radish) species. In suitable conditions the biofumigation technique is able to efficiently produce a number of important substances. In the above plant families, one of the most important enzymatic defensive systems is the myrosinase-glucosinolate system. With this system, tissues of these plants can be used as a soft, eco compatible alternative to chemical fumigants and sterilants. In a number of countries over the past few years, several experiments have been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the myrosinase-glucosinolate system, in particular using the glucosinolate-containing plants as a biologically- active rotation and green manure crop for controlling several soil-borne pathogens and diseases. The use of this technique is growing, and it is studied in several countries at a full-field scale (USA, Australia, Italy, The Netherlands and South Africa), thus triggering the interest of some seed companies, with a positive effect on the “biofumigation” seed market, which is significantly growing year after year. New potential has also been found for the dehydrated plant tissues and/or for defatted meal pellets production and use. An intense discussion amongst researchers of this topic in the various countries seems to be of fundamental importance particularly to define and develop future common strategies.
The First International Biofumigation Symposium was held in Florence, Italy in April this year. The objectives of the symposium were the following:
· To stimulate discussion and collaboration between researchers doing this work.
· To increase awareness of current research and extension projects.
· To share knowledge.
· To create an informal, international network of people working in this area.
· To establish a place to share information in the future.
One hundred and seven delegates from twelve countries (Italy, UK, France, Denmark, USA, Lebanon, Australia, Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland and South Africa) worldwide attended this meeting. During the course of the symposium the discussions on this subject ranged from very technical organic chemistry to on-farm applied research and development. The research done in South Africa was highlighted in a paper presented by Reinette Gouws on: “Biofumigation as alternative control measure for common scab on potatoes in South Africa”. Full funding for attendance was supplied by the ARC as it was considered to be an opportunity that would have far-reaching application in SA’s agro-economical industry and build on existing knowledge and international networks regarding biofumigation research.
Where does SA stand with this research?
Studies at ARC-Roodeplaat were viewed as novel by other countries, as no other research has been conducted on the control of common scab by biofumigation. A few highlights from the paper were:
· Establishing whether the disease can be controlled by soil incorporation of residues of brassicaceious crops;
· Which brassica species/variety or type of tissue provides the best results and;
· The potential of biofumigation as an affordable and environmentally-acceptable alternative to agrochemicals for the control of common scab.
In the current biofumigation project running at ARC Roodeplaat (funded by Potatoes South Africa), the following aspects are being investigated:
· on-farm field trials (Dendron) to evaluate efficacy against common scab;
· rotation regimes to optimise biofumigation potential; and
· application methods to ensure optimum effectivity.
Areas that will need attention in the future include:
· chemical analysis of glycosinolates;
· irrigation scheduling coupled with brassica amendments; and
· cological studies on the potato plant and pathogen interaction.
Why is research on biofumigation being done in South Africa?
It is important to research and apply alternative control measures as mentioned above and to integrate several cultural practices, as they are usually not as successful on their own as their chemical counterparts. These alternative control measures are of the utmost importance to the commercial and emerging agricultural sector in South Africa seeing that the cost of chemicals is very high and input costs are accumulating each year. The extensive use of the limited soil available also predisposes the farmers' crop and yield losses. The most important benefit from this research is the use of the technique as a control measure against a series of pathogens and pests in an integrated cropping system, perfectly suited to each individual farmer.
Reinette Gouws is a Plant Pathologist at ARC-Roodeplaat. Pretoria. Her responsibilities include research on bacterial diseases of potatoes. diagnostic services of bacterial diseases on all vegetables and training in vegetable production in fields as well as hydroponic systems.
stereoman blog photos
Joined: 3/17/2008
Location: beautiful southern appalachians
Posts: 2168
Posted: Aug/02/2008 1:24 PM PST

Well they're talking about "green manure" here, which means tilling under (or burying) the plant while it is still alive. So, for example, you would grow mustard as an in-between crop (late summer, early fall), then turn it under just before planting your next crop of nightshades.
Aurora blog photos
Joined: 4/24/2008
Location: Chesapeake VA
Posts: 1954
Posted: Aug/02/2008 3:29 PM PST

Really neat stuff!
Maybe this fall I'll put my cleomes into the veggie garden...
Joined: 8/02/2008
Location: Böhl
Posts: 2
Posted: Aug/02/2008 10:29 PM PST

Hello there!!

I am a farmer from Germany where Biofumigation or the use of glucosinolates is completely new... or lets better say unknown. Our chemic-agricultural indstry is very strong so new.. maybe better.. maybe cheaper..maybe you dont have to buy it from the industry products are hard to be found. Since i was in the US last time in 2004 I was trying to catch up with the latest events... but its not easy... as I can see the people in this community are pretty up to date.. therefore i´d like to ask some questions:

- is there a fair or symposium regfarding glucosinolates and or biopesticedes in general??
- do you know some scientists or legal administrations where i can gather some information???
-are there any "organic-pesticide" industrial products already available??

for any further information i would be very greatful!!

thank you very much

Aurora blog photos
Joined: 4/24/2008
Location: Chesapeake VA
Posts: 1954
Posted: Aug/03/2008 8:22 AM PST

Welcome to GG Holger!
I have no idea about symposiums and such, so can't answer those questions
There are many "organic pesticides" available- not sure if they are feasible for large-scale agriculural applications though. Try Googling "organic pesticides" and you should get lots of sites that sell stuff. I know one site, GardensAlive.com has lots of stuff. Pretty pricey though (at least for me LOL!)
Joined: 8/02/2008
Location: Böhl
Posts: 2
Posted: Aug/04/2008 3:39 AM PST

Thank you
Rashell blog photos
Joined: 9/17/2007
Location: Acton, Ca
Posts: 4230
Posted: Aug/04/2008 5:31 PM PST

Holger_M ... you MIGHT find answers to your questions at the USDA site. Link ...

http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/!ut/p/_s.7_0_A/7_0_ 1OB?navtype=SU&navid=AGRICULTURE

Links to "Agencies & Offices" also available & "Contact Us" link on the site.

I'm learning as much as I want to, this subject is getting way out of my league to get into a detailed discussion about it with anyone, sorry. There is so much info out there! if I see any other sites which I think might be an insterest to you, I'll let you know.

Hope someone here can help also.

PS. visit The United States National Arboretum's when you all have time. Pretty cool site! "Floral & Nursery Plants Research Unit" Atleast I think it's a cool site.

Rashell blog photos
Joined: 9/17/2007
Location: Acton, Ca
Posts: 4230
Posted: Aug/04/2008 5:38 PM PST

Originally posted by stereoman
Well they're talking about "green manure" here, which means tilling under (or burying) the plant while it is still alive. So, for example, you would grow mustard as an in-between crop (late summer, early fall), then turn it under just before planting your next crop of nightshades.

Thanks stereoman, now you're talking a language I understand! I remember reading about green manure but I read so much, at different site, in such little time.....I confused the heck out of myself.
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